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History Jammu And Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) is a region located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. Historically, it was a princely state at the time of British rule in India. It is known for its diverse culture, breathtaking landscapes, and a history marked by various ruling dynasties.

Timeline: Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) 

1846: The Treaty of Amritsar is signed, and Jammu and Kashmir becomes a princely state under the Dogra dynasty, with Gulab Singh as its ruler.

1947: During the partition of India, Maharaja Hari Singh, the ruler of Jammu and Kashmir, faces a decision on whether to join India or Pakistan. He accedes to India, leading to the Indo-Pakistani War.

1948: The Indo-Pakistani War ends with the intervention of the United Nations and the establishment of a ceasefire line, known as the Line of Control (LoC), dividing the region between India and Pakistan.

1952: Jammu and Kashmir's autonomy is recognized within the Indian Union through Article 370 of the Indian Constitution.

1989-1990: The region faces a period of insurgency and militancy, leading to widespread violence and unrest.

2019: The Indian government revokes Jammu and Kashmir's special status by abrogating Article 370, splitting the region into two union territories - Jammu and Kashmir, and Ladakh.

1846 to 1947 

From 1846 to 1947, the history of Jammu and Kashmir was marked by the rule of the Dogra dynasty and the eventual accession to India during the partition.

Dogra Rule (1846-1947):

Maharaja Gulab Singh: After signing the Treaty of Amritsar in 1846 with the British, Gulab Singh became the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir. His rule laid the foundation for the Dogra dynasty's control over the region.

Expansion and Administration: The Dogra rulers expanded their territory beyond the Kashmir Valley and introduced administrative reforms. They were known for their governance and infrastructure development in the region.

British Suzerainty: While the Dogras ruled Jammu and Kashmir, they did so under the suzerainty of the British Crown, which meant they had internal autonomy but were subject to certain external controls by the British.

Partition of India (1947):

Accession to India: As India was being partitioned in 1947 into India and Pakistan, the princely states were given the option to join either India or Pakistan. Maharaja Hari Singh, the ruler of Jammu and Kashmir, faced a dilemma as the majority of his subjects were Muslim while he was Hindu.

Accession to India: Amidst rising tensions and an invasion by tribesmen from Pakistan, Maharaja Hari Singh decided to accede to India in October 1947, signing the Instrument of Accession.

Indo-Pakistani War: Pakistan disputed the accession, leading to the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947-48. The conflict resulted in the establishment of the Line of Control (LoC), dividing the region between India-administered Jammu and Kashmir and Pakistan-administered Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan.

1948 to 1952

  • Between 1948 and 1952, several significant events took place in Jammu and Kashmir, shaping its political landscape within the Indian Union:

1948 - Ceasefire and UN Intervention:

  • The Indo-Pakistani War that began in 1947 concluded with a ceasefire in 1948.
  • The United Nations intervened and facilitated a ceasefire line, known as the Line of Control (LoC), which divided the region between India and Pakistan.

1949 - Adoption of a Constitution:

  • In 1949, Jammu and Kashmir adopted its own constitution, outlining the region's governance and relationship with India.

1952 - Special Status through Article 370:

  • Article 370 of the Indian Constitution was incorporated, granting a special status to Jammu and Kashmir.
  • This article provided the region with significant autonomy, allowing it to have its own constitution, a separate flag, and independence over internal matters except for defense, foreign affairs, finance, and communications, which remained under the purview of the Indian government.

The period from 1948 to 1952 was crucial in defining the relationship between Jammu and Kashmir and the Indian Union. The implementation of Article 370 provided a unique constitutional status to the region within India, giving it a degree of autonomy that differed from other Indian states.


The period of 1989-1990 was a tumultuous time in the history of Jammu and Kashmir, marked by significant political unrest and the eruption of insurgency:

Insurgency and Unrest:

  • In the late 1980s, there was a surge in discontent within Jammu and Kashmir due to various socio-political and economic factors, including alleged electoral fraud, dissatisfaction with governance, and a desire for greater autonomy or independence.
  • This discontent led to widespread protests and demonstrations against the Indian government's policies in the region.

Rise of Militancy:

  • The period saw the emergence of armed insurgency against Indian rule in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Militant groups began to gain prominence, and there was an increase in armed attacks, protests, and clashes between insurgents and security forces.

Security Measures and Human Rights Concerns:

  • The Indian government responded by deploying security forces to counter the insurgency. This led to a heightened security presence in the region.
  • However, this period also raised concerns about human rights violations and allegations of excessive use of force by security personnel, which further fueled tensions and added to the unrest.

The years around 1989-1990 marked a turning point in the region's history, leading to a prolonged period of conflict and violence that significantly impacted the socio-political landscape of Jammu and Kashmir.

1990 to till

From 1990 onward, the history of Jammu and Kashmir has been shaped by a continuation of political complexities, insurgency, governance challenges, and efforts towards resolution:

Continuation of Insurgency and Conflict:

  • The 1990s witnessed a continuation of armed insurgency and separatist movements in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • This period saw intermittent periods of heightened violence, clashes between militants and security forces, and civilian unrest.

Evolving Political Landscape:

  • Efforts were made by successive Indian governments to address the political situation in the region through dialogue, governance reforms, and attempts to engage with different stakeholders.
  • However, achieving a lasting resolution remained elusive, as issues of autonomy, self-determination, and conflicting territorial claims persisted between India and Pakistan.

Changes in Governance and Administration:

  • Jammu and Kashmir operated under the special provisions of Article 370 until August 2019, when the Indian government abrogated Article 370, thereby revoking the region's special status.
  • This move led to the bifurcation of the state into two separate union territories: Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, with altered governance structures.

Focus on Development and Reconciliation:

  • Efforts have been made to focus on developmental initiatives, including infrastructure projects, educational reforms, and economic development, aimed at improving the quality of life for the people of the region.

Ongoing Geo-Political Concerns:

  • The region remains a contentious point between India and Pakistan, with both countries claiming sovereignty over the entire territory of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Geopolitical tensions, occasional border skirmishes, and cross-border infiltration continue to impact the region's stability.

The period from the 1990s to the present day has been marked by a complex interplay of political, social, and security-related dynamics in Jammu and Kashmir, shaping its ongoing narrative within the broader context of India's internal affairs and the Indo-Pakistani relationship.

Dynasties who rule Jammu and Kashmir 

Here are some of the significant dynasties that ruled over Jammu and Kashmir along with approximate timeframes:

Dogra Dynasty:

  • Ruled: 1846 - 1947
  • Key Rulers: Gulab Singh, Ranbir Singh, Hari Singh

Lohara Dynasty:

  • Ruled: 1003 - 1320
  • Key Rulers: Utkarshdev, Sussala, Kota Rani

Shah Mir Dynasty (Kashmir Sultanate):

  • Ruled: 1339 - 1561
  • Key Rulers: Shams-ud-Din Shah Mir, Sikandar Butshikan, Zain-ul-Abidin

Chak Dynasty:

  • Ruled: 1561 - 1586
  • Key Ruler: Yaqub Shah Chak

Mughal Rule:

  • Ruled: Periodic control from the late 16th century until the mid-18th century.

Afghan Durrani Empire:

  • Ruled: 1753 - 1819
  • Key Ruler: Ahmad Shah Durrani

Sikh Empire:

  • Ruled: 1819 - 1846
  • Key Ruler: Maharaja Ranjit Singh

Dogra Dynasty (under British Suzerainty):

  • Ruled: 1846 - 1947
  • Key Rulers: Gulab Singh, Ranbir Singh, Hari Singh

These dynasties played pivotal roles in shaping the history, culture, and governance of Jammu and Kashmir over various periods, each leaving its own imprint on the region.

Jammu and Kashmir Dynasties MCQs
Question Options Answer
1. Which dynasty ruled Jammu and Kashmir from 1846 to 1947? a) Dogra Dynasty
b) Lohara Dynasty
c) Shah Mir Dynasty
d) Sikh Empire
a) Dogra Dynasty
2. The Lohara Dynasty ruled Jammu and Kashmir approximately during which period? a) 1003 - 1320
b) 1339 - 1561
c) 1561 - 1586
d) 1753 - 1819
a) 1003 - 1320
50. Which dynasty ruled Jammu and Kashmir after the fall of the Mughal Empire? a) Dogra Dynasty
b) Chak Dynasty
c) Lohara Dynasty
d) Sikh Empire
b) Chak Dynasty

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